More and more I watch couples around me struggle with infertility. I had one friend go to multiple fertility centers across the US trying to get pregnant with endometriosis. She was finally successful and jokes that her baby, “spent his inheritance getting here.” My sister, happy mother of 2, has had a horrible year with two miscarriages. After multiple tests, they discovered that she has a blood clotting disorder and hopefully she will be able to carry full term next time.
The Problem – Infertility
With the rise of infertility for whatever reason – diet, exercise, GM foods, toxins in our food/water, endocrine disruptors in our daily products – it’s natural that mankind is working on new ways to treat infertility, but how far are you willing to go? Is it okay to genetically modify humans? For some women/couples, not surprisingly, no.
New Science – Genetic Modification of Humans
In terms of genetically modifying, some strange headlines have been produced over the last few years. More and more human genes are in those headlines. Last year, human genes were added to cows in order for cattle to produce human breast milk in China.
But humans? Sound too much like the 1997 movie Gattaca to be true? Think again. This week it was announced that 30 healthy genetically modified babies were produced at the Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Science of St Barnabas in New Jersey. The study was published in the journal Human Reproduction.
Can genetic modification be a new treatment for infertile women? In these experiments, the female patients had damaged mitochondria in their eggs. Scientists took the mitochondria from eggs of healthy donors and injected it in the patients. Mitochondria are the power source for cells and works by converting sugar into energy. In eggs, the mitochondria (and quality of the egg) lessen with age along with other factors (genetics, smoking, health problems such as endometriosis). If the egg does not have enough mitochondria or its mitochondria are damaged, then the cells will not be able to produce the energy to divide and form a fetus.
Is this an alternative to using donor eggs? One of the biggest drawback to using a donated egg is that the couple trying to conceive will not have a child of their genetic make-up. However, this new treatment has caused some of the children to have altered maternal germlines. The children have the DNA of three parents – two women and one man. It is important to take note that this is the first case of human germline genetic modification resulting in normal healthy children. Also of note, not all of the children had altered germlines and one of the children with an altered germline was diagnosed with pervasive development disorder – a type of autism.
The Controversy – Ethics
The controversy behind this new infertility treatment is heard around the world. Doctors and specialists in Britain stated in the Daily Mail that it shouldn’t be allowed, nor would it be allowed in the UK. In the Jamaica Observer, they start their report by discussing how comic book super heroes got their powers and then asking if the human race is headed towards a super race of genetically altered superior humans? The idea of a genetically modified human race is not new, of course, but now it seems that we might have the technology to carry it out. The Jamaica Observer also points out that the media has finally caught up to the science and that these experiments actually started in 1997.
And what does the US government have to say about this? In an article from Washington Monthly published in 2002, Shannon Brownlee reports:
Since 1998, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has argued that genetically manipulated embryos are a “biological product,” and therefore subject to regulation, just like medical devices and drugs. But because of a quirk in federal law, the FDA’s authority in this sphere is far from certain.
I looked on the FDA’s website and could only find guidance on genetically engineering animals. It stated:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today issued a final guidance for industry on the regulation of genetically engineered (GE) animals under the new animal drug provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). The guidance, titled “The Regulation of Genetically Engineered Animals Containing Heritable rDNA Constructs,” clarifies the FDA’s statutory and regulatory authority, and provides recommendations to producers of GE animals to help them meet their obligations and responsibilities under the law.
“Genetic engineering is a cutting edge technology that holds substantial promise for improving the health and well being of people as well as animals. In this document, the agency has articulated a scientifically robust interpretation of statutory requirements,” said Randall Lutter, Ph.D., deputy commissioner for policy. “This guidance will help the FDA efficiently review applications for products from GE animals to ensure their safety and efficacy.”
The FFDCA defines “articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals” as drugs. An rDNA construct that is in a GE animal and is intended to affect the animal’s structure or function meets the definition of an animal drug, whether the animal is intended for food, or used to produce another substance. Developers of these animals must demonstrate that the construct and any new products expressed from the inserted construct are safe for the health of the GE animal and, if they are food animals, for food consumption.
What Do You Think?
Countries all around the world are outlawing genetically modified crops produced by the seed corporation Monsanto. This coming November, California will vote whether or not GM foods have to be labeled. All while Jacques Cohen, of the Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Science of St Barnabas in New Jersey, continues to develop ways to help infertile women conceive which includes genetically modifying humans..
What do you think? Is it worth the potential risks of altering our genetic code to help infertile women carry their “own” children?